To gain an understanding of the anatomical and physiological changes involved in facial ageing, examine the evidence base for standardised approaches to assessing facial ageing and recommend facial rejuvenation strategies.
Materials & Methods
A review of the literature was conducted, looking for published work on the anatomical and physiological changes of facial ageing, validated methods of assessing facial ageing and current treatment options for facial rejuvenation, both surgical and non-surgical.
A number of review and original research articles were identified. Data was extracted and tabulated.
Facial aging is largely caused by skeletal remodelling, muscular facial activity, and, solar changes. Assessment is mainly clinical and subjective in nature, although objective measures using ultrasound or optical profilometry may be used. Rejuvenation is increasingly approached non-surgically (i.e. botulinum toxin, dermal fillers, lasers and other heat technologies), in addition to surgical approaches, including open, endoscopic and minimally invasive techniques.